Our way of thinking is steered by intuition and instinctive judgment, not only logic
In the past we used to believe that all thoughts are formed rationally, hence we were sure that when we had formed an opinion, we were “right”.
Advances in cognitive neuroscience and moral psychology have helped us understand some of the complexity of our mind, specifically the fact that our brain usually takes “short cuts” and makes approximated assumptions in order to save energy.
These approximated assumptions are usually called “heuristics” (intuitive answers to a complex problem by way of approximation.
Whenever a Heuristic give us a correct interpretation of reality, we call it an Algorithm (e.g. we approximate the result of a complex arithmetic operation by indicating order of magnitude rather than a detailed results).
Our Way of Thinking is usually formed by a number of Heuristics, some of which can be Biased Assumptions (for example, I might “assume” that always agreeing with my boss will protect my job, whereas disagreeing at time and standing up for what is right might actually be a better strategy to help the business and protect the job).